Pakistan is having the largest gemstones and minerals reserves in the world it is said the 2nd largest after Brazil. Pakistan's popular areas are Baluchistan Province, in north sides, there are Skardu, Gilgit, Baltistan, Hunza, and Sawat Valleys which have the following types of gemstones and minerals.

  1. ---Precious and base metals
  2. ---Precious and semi-precious gemstones,
  3. ---Industrial minerals
  4. ---Placer deposits for recovery of gold & other precious metals from the alluvial deposits.


The beauty of Hunza, Gilgit, and Skardu captures one’s mind immediately. Watch: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fw51XlksK2M One cannot help staying and enjoying there for a long time if ever visit these areas. Nature has blessed this region with not only the stunning beauty of mountains, greenery, flowers, fruits, innocent people but also with many precious and semi-precious gemstones.

The quality of these stones is recognized at the international level. The gemstones, rocks, crystals found in this area are very nice, clear, having good color and variety. The popular gemstones are here with it.

  • Ruby
  • Emerald
  • Sapphire
  • Spinal
  • Aquamarine
  • Topaz
  • Epidote
  • Moonstone
  • Zircon
  • Pargasite
  • Garnet
  • Amethyst
  • Morganite
  • Tourmaline
  • Quartz
  • Pyrite
  • Malachite
  • azurite

The region is divided into different way geologically:-

  • Presence of Various types of sedimentary, igneous, volcanic and different grades of metamorphosed rocks.
  • All these rocks range in age from pre-Cambrian to recent.
  • Occurrence of 2 major tectonic thrusts.
  • Typical rocks of the mélange zone.
  • Rocks of the Island arc sequence.
  • Variety of alteration zones.


The division of gemstones in region wise:-

Mining Areas

The few potential/major gemstone mining areas in Pakistan are: (only major gemstones yielded are mentioned)

Northwest Frontier Province

--Emerald, Quartz, Epidot  Sawat (Malakand Division)
 --Corundum and quartz  Dir (Malakand division) 
 --Corundum / Smoky Quartz  Mansehra (Hazara Division)
 --Peridot Kohistan (Hazara Division) 
 --Quartz with Astophyllite / reibeckite fiber inclusions, xenotime and Bastnaesite  Peshawar District (Frontier Province)

Federally Administered Tribal Areas

---Emerald, Clinozoisite, Sphene, Epidot Mohmand Agency
---Emerald, garnet, and orange-colour scapolite Bajaur Agency
---Quartz with astrophyllite/reibeckite fibers inclusions, xenotime, and bastnaesite Khyber Agency 
---Faden quartz, diamond quartz, phantom quartz, chlorite-included quartz, and window quartz North and South Waziristan Agencies

Northern Areas

 ---Alluvial diopside, zircon, rutile quartz, aquamarine, and tourmaline Chilas (Diamer district)
 ---Aquamarine, topaz (golden and white), emerald (new find), ruby, pollucite, rutile quartz, morganite, apatite, spinel, and pargasite Gilgi , Hunza, and Shigar (Gilgit district)
---Aquamarine, topaz, tourmaline, apatite, sphene, morganite, and quartz  Shengus, Stak Nala, and Tormiq Nala (Baltistan Skardu Road, Baltistan district)
---Apatite, zoisite, rutile quartz, epidote, and morganite  Shigar Proper (near Skardu, Baltistan district) 
---Aquamarine, emerald-colour tourmaline, apatite, morganite, topaz, and quartz  Childee, Kashmal, and Yuno (Shigar area, near Skardu, Baltistan district)
--- aquamarine, tourmaline, morganite, rare earth minerals, apatite, quartz, and new find emerald Hyderabad, Testun, Dassu, Net Tahirabad, and Goyungo (Shigar area, Baltistan district)  Topaz (best golden colour here),
---Tourmaline, aquamarine, garnets,diopside, ruby, pargasite, emerald, topaz, amethyst, scheelite, and quartz Appu Aligund, Fuljo, Braldu, Bashu, and Karma (Baltistan district) 
---  Aquamarine, amethyst, and fine golden rutile quartz

Khappalu and near Siachin area (Gaanshai area, Baltistan district) 


Highest Peaks in this Region

Baluchistan Province

---Brookite, anatase, and quartz Kharan district

---Diamond quartz, window quartz, quartz on prehnite-base, 

and faden quartz included by chlorite

Chaman (near Quetta)

These areas are still under development and need the government’s’ attention, foreign or local investors’ attention. The miners risk their life by climbing on the peaks and much even lost their lives. Ill-equipped and oblivious of the mining techniques, these people used explosives to initiate diggings and blasting and distributing the costs that may incur during the mining period.

The world's highest peaks exist in this region such as the famous world 2nd largest K-2, Killer Mountain Nanga Parbat. Three different mountain ranges meet together in this region i.e. Hindukush, Qaraqarm, Himalayans.

The earth changes in this region happened around 50-million years ago. In the geological changes, these huge mountain ranges appeared. The movement of tectonic plates caused huge pressure (1000s tons) which formed rocks, minerals and gems and converted them in gemstones, minerals, or rare compounds. The reason for gemstones in these geological changes. That is why these regions are rich in precious/semi-precious gemstones, rocks, minerals.

References:

http://www.gilgitbaltistan.gov.pk/DownloadFiles/InvestmentPotential/Minerals.pdf

http://nceg.uop.edu.pk/GeologicalBulletin/ESP-2014AbstractVolume/abstracts92.pdf